Chapomatic has the find of the month (OK, so it's the 1st... it's still a good find). A submariner's wife collected all the modern submariner slang she could find, investigated some of the origins, and had herself a 50+ page college English research paper (the Word document is here). The table in the back gives quite a bit of the submarine-specific terminology in common use, with definitions.
One outstanding question remains, though: I always spelled it zouf, but she uses zoof. Which one do you think it is?
Update 0744 01 Dec: I should have given the document linked above a "bad word warning", but that's kind of inherent in any discussion of submarine slang. She does do a pretty good job of avoiding bad words when they aren't necessary, though; for example, in her scholarly discussion of the term "patrol sock", she notes that it's used to relieve "DSB".